Vision & Driving

Driving is a complex task involving the integration of a range of visual, cognitive and psychomotor skills, many of which are impaired with increasing age. Given that driving is a highly visual task, it has been suggested that the high prevalence of visual impairment in older adults contributes to the decrement in driving performance and safety evident in some older drivers. The research activities of the team focus on investigating a range of research questions concerning the relationship between vision, ageing and driving performance. The research is transdisciplinary in nature involving collaborations with national and international researchers from a range of disciplines including psychology, engineering, audiology, neurology, ophthalmology, cognitive ageing and lighting.

Ocular Disease & Driving

Simulated central field defect while driving

As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment will increase, given the age-related increase in the prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. Our research has considered driving performance (assessed under closed and open road conditions), various motor vehicle crash indices and self-reported driving outcomes. We have demonstrated that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular diseases including cataracts , glaucoma,  age-related macular degeneration and hemianopic field loss, however, further research is needed in this area. Importantly, older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

Vision & Night Driving

Night-time driving is dangerous, with crash rates being up to 3x higher at night than in the day. Our research on a closed-road circuit has demonstrated that age and the visual status of the driver (blur and simulated cataracts) have negative impacts on night-time driving ability.  We have also explored the effect of different types of presbyopic spectacle and contact lens corrections on night-time driving, demonstrating that presbyopic contact lenses have negative effects on some aspects of night driving. In systematic studies of the effects of blur, we have demonstrated that the effects of blur were greatest under nighttime conditions, even for levels of blur as low as +0.50 DS. These results emphasize the importance of accurate and up-to-date refractive correction of even low levels of refractive error when driving at night.

The Vision and Night Driving Questionnaire (VND-Q)

The Vision and Night Driving Questionnaire (VND-Q) is a 9-item self-report measure of vision-related night driving difficulties for older drivers.  The questionnaire uses a Likert-type scale format, and its psychometric properties have been validated using Rasch analysis to inform item selection and conversion to interval-level scores.  It is especially useful in clinical settings to assist clinicians and researchers in better understanding and tailoring treatment options for older drivers reporting vision-related night driving difficulties.

The VND-Q is available for use without charge to researchers without written permission, provided that they identify the measure as such in all publications. Users should also cite the following article: Kimlin JA, Black A, Djaja N, Wood JM. (2016) Development and validation of a vision and night driving questionnaire. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 36(4), 465-476.

Click this link to download the VND-Q questionnaire and scoring instructions: Vision & night driving questionnaire

Eye Movements & Driving

Example of eye movements while driving on night-time roads

Research into eye movements has become of increasing interest in driving research as it provides insight into how drivers respond to visual stimuli within the driving environment. During driving, eye movements are particularly important to monitor the forward traffic scene to avoid potential hazards, allowing the driver to obtain information from their visual field that is useful for driving. Our studies have explored the impact of ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, on eye movements, both within laboratory-based driving tasks as well as for closed road studies, demonstrating that some individuals with visual impairment may be able to compensate for their loss through more extensive scanning patterns.

Eye tracking is used to explore the visual challenges of night-time driving and better understand what attracts drivers’ attention at night.

Example of eye movements while driving around a closed-road circuit

The Vision & Everyday Function Research Group have several eye and head tracking systems for laboratory and field-based applications, including technology from Tobii (www.tobii.com), ASL Mobile Eye (www.imotions.com/asl-eye-tracking-glasses/) and Pupil Labs (www.pupil-labs.com).

Example of eye movements while viewing driving a static driving-related task


Chief Investigators

Team

Publications

  • Owsley, Cynthia, McGwin, Jr., Gerald, Antin, Jon, , & Elgin, Jennifer (2018) The Alabama VIP older driver study rationale and design: examining the relationship between vision impairment and driving using naturalistic driving techniques. BMC Ophthalmology, 18, Article number: 32 1-12.
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  • , , & (2018) Scanning behaviour and daytime driving performance of older adults with glaucoma. Journal of Glaucoma, 27(6), pp. 558-565.
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  • , , , , , Naweed, Anjum, & (2018) Is it safe to cross? Identification of trains and their approach speed at level crossings. Safety Science, 103(1), pp. 33-42.
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  • Fylan, Fiona, Hughes, A., , & Elliott, David (2018) Why do people drive when they can't see clearly? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 56, pp. 123-133.
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  • , , , Kwan, Anthony, & Owsley, Cynthia (2018) Effects of age-related macular degeneration on driving performance. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 59(1), pp. 273-279.
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  • , , & (2017) Effect of glaucoma on eye movement patterns and laboratory-based hazard detection ability. PLoS One, 12(6), Article number: e0178876 1-14.
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  • Anstey, Kaarin, Eramudugolla, Ranmalee, Chopra, Sidhant, Price, Jasmine, & (2017) Assessment of driving safety in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 57(4), pp. 1197-1205.
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  • , , & (2017) Nighttime driving in older adults: Effects of glare and association with mesopic visual function. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 58(5), pp. 2796-2803.
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  • , , , , & (2017) Driver behaviour at level crossings: Too fast approach speeds and too fast decisions? In 2017 Australasian Road Safety Conference, 2017-10-10 - 2017-10-12.
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  • , , , , , & Holder, Leigh (2017) The Enright phenomenon: Stereoscopic distortion of perceived driving speed induced by monocular pupil dilation. Journal of Optometry, 10(4), pp. 233-241.
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  • Muir, Carlyn, Charlton, Judith, Odell, Morris, Keeffe, Jill, , Bohensky, Megan, Fildes, Brian, Oxley, Jennifer, , & Rizzo, Matthew (2016) Medical review licensing outcomes in drivers with visual field loss in Victoria, Australia. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 99(5), pp. 462-468.
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  • Anstey, Kaarin, Eramudugolla, Ranmalee, Ross, Lesley, Lautenschlager, Nicola, & (2016) Road safety in an aging population: risk factors, assessment, interventions, and future directions. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(3), pp. 349-356.
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  • & Owsley, Cynthia (2016) Vision and driving: a look at the research road ahead (Guest Editorial). Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 99(5), pp. 393-394.
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  • , , , & (2016) Eye movements and road hazard detection: Effects of blur and distractors. Optometry and Vision Science, 93(9), pp. 1137-1146.
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  • , , , & (2016) Development and validation of a vision and night driving questionnaire. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 36(4), pp. 465-476.
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  • , , , Thomas, Ravi, & Owsley, Cynthia (2016) Glaucoma and driving: On-road driving characteristics. PLoS One, 11(7), Article number: e0158318 1-12.
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  • & (2016) Ocular disease and driving. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 99(5), pp. 395-401.
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  • Kwon, MiYoung, Huisingh, Carrie, Rhodes, Lindsay, McGwin, Jr., Gerald, , & Owsley, Cynthia (2016) Association between glaucoma and at-fault motor vehicle collision involvement among older drivers : A population-based study. Ophthalmology, 123(1), pp. 109-116.
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  • McGwin, Jr., Gerald, , Huisingh, Carrie, & Owsley, Cynthia (2016) Motor vehicle collision involvement among persons with hemianopia and quadrantanopia. Geriatrics, 1(3), Article number: 19 1-8.
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  • , , , , Naweed, Anjum, & (2016) Visual performance at passive level crossings with long sighting distances. In Conference on Railway Excellence, 2016-05-16 - 2016-05-18.
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  • , Elgin, Jennifer, McGwin, Jr., Gerald, & Owsley, Cynthia (2016) Characteristics of on-road driving by persons with central vision loss: Learning to drive with a bioptic telescope. Assistive Technology, 28(2), pp. 74-82.
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  • Huisingh, Carrie, McGwin, Jr., Gerald, , & Owsley, Cynthia (2015) The driving visual field and a history of motor vehicle collision involvement in older drivers: A population-based examination. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56(1), pp. 132-138.
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  • Edwards, Jerri, Lister, Jennifer, Lin, Frank, Andel, Ross, Brown, Lisa, & (2015) Association of hearing impairment and subsequent driving mobility in older adults [Conference Abstract]. The Gerontologist, 55(S2), pp. 137-138.
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  • , , & (2015) Blur, eye movements and performance on a driving visual recognition slide test. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 35(5), pp. 522-529.
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  • , Cliff, David, & Burgess-Limerick, Robin (2015) Translating road safety research on night-time visibility to the context of mining. In Aziz, N & Kininmonth, B (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2015 Coal Operators' Conference. University of Wollongong, Australia, pp. 312-315.
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  • Owsley, Cynthia, , & McGwin, Jr., Gerald (2015) A roadmap for interpreting the literature on vision and driving. Survey of Ophthalmology, 60(3), pp. 250-262.
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  • , , & (2014) Visual motion perception predicts driving hazard perception ability. Acta Ophthalmologica, 92(1), pp. 88-93.
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  • , , Chaparro, Alex, , , , & (2014) Differential effects of refractive blur on day and nighttime driving performance. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55(4), pp. 2284-2289.
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  • Vaphiades, Michael, Kline, Lanning, McGwin, Jr., Gerald, Owsley, Cynthia, Shah, Ritu, & (2014) Prediction of driving safety in individuals with homonymous hemianopia and quadrantanopia from clinical neuro-imaging. Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014, Article number: 754042 1-6.
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  • , , Anstey, Kaarin, & Lord, Stephen (2014) Sensorimotor and postural control factors associated with driving safety in a community-dwelling older driver population. Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69A(2), pp. 240-244.
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  • Owsley, Cynthia, McGwin, Jr., Gerald, Elgin, Jennifer, & (2014) Visually impaired drivers who use bioptic telescopes: self-assessed driving skills and agreement with on-road driving evaluation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55(1), pp. 330-336.
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  • , , , , & (2014) Age-related changes in perception of movement in driving scenes. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 34(4), pp. 445-451.
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  • , , & Anstey, Kaarin (2013) Not all older adults have insight into their driving abilities: Evidence from an on-road assessment and implications for policy. Journals of Gerontology - Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(5), pp. 559-566.
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  • , McGwin, Jr., Gerald, Elgin, Jennifer, Searcey, Karen, & Owsley, Cynthia (2013) Characteristics of on-road driving performance of persons with central vision loss who use bioptic telescopes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(5), pp. 3790-3797.
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  • , Horswill, Mark, , & Anstey, Kaarin (2013) Evaluation of screening tests for predicting older driver performance and safety assessed by an on-road test. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, pp. 1161-1168.
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  • , , , , , & (2012) Driving speed is altered by monocular neutral density filters: The Enright phenomenon. Optometry and Vision Science, 89(1), pp. 38-43.
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  • Anstey, Kaarin, Horswill, Mark, , & Hatherly, Christopher (2012) The role of cognitive and visual abilities as predictors in the Multifactorial Model of Driving Safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, pp. 766-774.
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  • Owens, D., , , & (2012) Effects of age and illumination on driving performance. In Gale, A, Brown, I, Taylor, S, & Haselgrave, C M (Eds.) Vision in Vehicles - VIII. Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, pp. 40-48.
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  • Higgins, Kent & (2012) Sensitivity and specificity of vision tests for predicting driving performance. In Gale, A, Brown, I, Taylor, S, & Haselgrave, C M (Eds.) Vision in Vehicles - VIII. Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, pp. 11-17.
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  • , , & (2012) Open-road measurement of sign legibility distances: differences under high (daytime) and low (night-time) illumination conditions. In Gale, A G, Wood, J, Underwood, G, & Bloomfield, J (Eds.) Vision in Vehicles - IX. Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, pp. 39-45.
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  • , , & (2012) The impact of cataracts on driving performance as measured on a closed road circuit. In Gale, A G, Wood, J, Underwood, G, & Bloomfield, J (Eds.) Vision in Vehicles - IX. Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, pp. 23-27.
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  • (2012) Effects of vision and age on driving performance as measured under closed and open road conditions. In Gale, A, Brown, I, Taylor, S, & Haselgrave, C M (Eds.) Vision in Vehicles - VIII. Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, pp. 32-39.
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  • , , , & (2012) A technique for on-road assessment of road sign visibility distances. In Gale, A, Brown, I, Taylor, S, & Haselgrave, C M (Eds.) Vision in Vehicles - VIII. Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough University, United Kingdom, pp. 489-497.
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  • , Chaparro, Alex, , & Hickson, Louise (2012) Useful field of view predicts driving in the presence of distracters. Optometry and Vision Science, 89(4), pp. 373-381.
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  • Horswill, Mark, Anstey, Kaarin, Hatherly, Christopher, , & Pachana, Nancy (2011) Older drivers' insight into their hazard perception ability. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(6), pp. 2121-2127.
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  • Parker, Walter, McGwin, Gerald, , Elgin, Jennifer, Vaphiades, Michael, Kline, Lanning, & Owsley, Cynthia (2011) Self-reported driving difficulty by persons with hemianopia and quadrantanopia. Current Eye Research, 36(3), pp. 270-277.
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  • & Chaparro, Alex (2011) Night driving: How low illumination affects driving and the challenges of simulation. In Lee, J D, Rizzo, M, Caird, J, & Fisher, D L (Eds.) Handbook of Driving Simulation for Engineering, Medicine, and Psychology. CRC Press Group, United States, 28-1-28-12.
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  • , McGwin, Gerald, Elgin, Jennifer, Vaphiades, Michael, Braswell, Ronald, DeCarlo, Dawn, Kline, Lanning, & Owsley, Cynthia (2011) Hemianopic and quadrantanopic field loss, eye and head movements, and driving. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 52(3), pp. 1220-1225.
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  • , , & (2010) The effect of presbyopic vision corrections on nighttime driving performance. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(9), pp. 4861-4866.
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  • Hickson, Louise, , , , & (2010) Hearing impairment affects older people's ability to drive in the presence of distracters. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(6), pp. 1097-1103.
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  • , , , & (2010) Effect of simulated visual impairment on nighttime driving performance. Optometry and Vision Science, 87(6), pp. 379-386.
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  • Elgin, Jennifer, McGwin, Gerald, , Vaphiades, Michael, Braswell, Ronald, DeCArlo, Dawn, Kline, Lanning, & Owsley, Cynthia (2010) Evaluation of on-road driving in people with hemianopia and quadrantanopia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(2), pp. 268-278.
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  • Horswill, Mark, Anstey, Kaarin, Hatherly, Christopher, & (2010) The crash involvement of older drivers is associated with their hazard perception latencies. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(5), pp. 939-944.
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  • Owens, D, , & (2010) Effects of reduced contrast on the perception and control of speed when driving. Perception, 39(9), pp. 1199-1215.
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  • Wetton, Mark, Horswill, Mark, Hatherly, Christopher, , Pachana, Nancy, & Anstey, Kaarin (2010) The development and validation of two complementary measures of drivers' hazard perception ability. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(4), pp. 1232-1239.
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  • , , & Hickson, Louise (2009) Interaction Between Visual Status, Driver Age and Distracters on Daytime Driving Performance. Vision Research, 49(17), pp. 2225-2231.
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  • Horswill, Mark, Pachana, Nancy, , Marrington, Shelby, McWilliam, Jenna, & McCullough, Cynthia (2009) A comparison of the hazard perception ability of matched groups of healthy drivers aged 35 to 55, 65 to 74, and 75 to 84 years. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(5), pp. 799-802.
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  • , Anstey, Kaarin, , , Mallon, Kerry, & Lord, Stephen (2009) The on-road difficulties of older drivers and their relationship with self-reported motor vehicle crashes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(11), pp. 2062-2069.
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  • Anstey, Kaarin, , Caldwell, Haley, , & Lord, Stephen (2009) Comparison of self-reported crashes, state crash records and an on-road driving assessment in a population-based sample of drivers aged 69-95 years. Traffic Injury Prevention, 10(1), pp. 84-90.
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  • , , & (2009) Effect of Presbyopic Vision Corrections On Perceptions of Driving Difficulty. Eye and Contact Lens, 35(3), pp. 133-143.
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  • , McGwin, Gerald, Elgin, Jennifer, Vaphiades, Michael, Braswell, Ronald, DeCArlo, Dawn, Kline, Lanning, Meek, G. Christine, Searcey, Karen, & Owsley, Cynthia (2009) On-road driving performance by persons with hemianopia and quadrantanopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 50(2), pp. 577-585.
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  • , , & (2009) Influence of presbyopic corrections on driving-related eye and head movements. In XII Biennial Scientific and Educators' Meeting in Optometry, 2008-09-28 - 2008-09-30.
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  • , Elgin, Jennifer, McGwin, Gerald, Meek, G. Christine, Vaphiades, Michael, Braswell, Ronald, DeCArlo, Dawn, Kline, Lanning, & Owlsey, Cynthia (2009) Driving performance in persons with hemianopia and quadrantanopia assessed under in-traffic conditions. In 12th Scientific Meeting in Optometry, 2008-09-28 - 2008-09-30.
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  • , , & (2009) Driving-related eye and head movements are changed by the type of presbyopic correction. In Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) 2009 Annual Meeting, 2009-05-03 - 2009-05-07.
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  • , , & (2009) Influence of presbyopic corrections on driving-related eye and head movements. Optometry and Vision Science, 86(11), pp. 1267-1275.
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  • , Elgin, Jennifer, McGwin, Gerald, Vaphiades, Mischael, Kline, Lanning, & Owsley, Cynthia (2009) Head and eye movements and lane keeping in drivers with Hemianopia and Quadrantanopia compared to controls. In Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) 2009 Annual Meeting, 2009-05-03 - 2009-05-07.
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  • (2009) Vision and the ageing driver. In Odell, M (Ed.) Older Road Users: Myths and Realities, A Guide for Medical and Legal Professionals. Lawyers and Judges Publishing, United States, pp. 53-82.
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  • Dain, Stephen, , & (2009) Sunglasses, traffic signals, and colour vision deficiencies. Optometry and Vision Science, 86(4), pp. 296-305.
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  • , , Robinson, Andrew, , , & (2008) Empirical measurement of the Enright phenomenon, a distortion of perceived driving speed. In 12th Scientific Meeting in Optometry, 2008-09-28 - 2008-09-30.
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  • , Anstey, Kaarin, , , & Lord, Stephen (2008) A multidomain approach for predicting older driver safety under in-traffic road conditions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(6), pp. 986-993.
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  • Horswill, Mark, Marrington, Shelby, McCullough, Cynthia, , Pachana, Nancy, McWilliam, Jenna, & Raikos, Maria (2008) The hazard perception ability of older drivers. Journals of Gerontology - Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63B(4), pp. 212-218.
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  • Chaparro, Alex & (2008) Closed road driving performance: evidence for a front speech advantage for older drivers. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(E), p. 2888.
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  • Owens, D, , & Owens, Justin (2007) Effects of Age and Illumination on Night Driving: A Road Test. Human Factors, 49(6), pp. 1115-1131.
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  • , , , & (2006) Predictors of Driving Assessment Outcome in Parkinson's Disease. Movement Disorders, 21(2), pp. 230-235.
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  • , , , & Hickson, Louise (2006) How multi-tasking interacts with visual impairment and age on measures of driving performance? In Transportation Research Record: Journal of Transportation Research Board, No. 1980, 2006-01-01.
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  • , , , & (2006) Self-awareness of driving impairment in patients with cataract or glaucoma. In 2006 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference, 2006-10-25 - 2006-10-27.
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  • & (2006) Bilateral Cataract Surgery and Driving Performance. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 90(10), pp. 1277-1280.
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  • , , & (2005) When Red Lights Look Yellow. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 46(11), pp. 4348-4352.
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  • , , & (2005) Effects of Age and Auditory and Visual Dual Tasks on Closed-Road driving Performance. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(8), pp. 747-754.
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  • , , , & (2005) Predictors of Driving Assessment Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 238(Suppl.1), p. 376.
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  • & (2005) Standard Measures of Visual Acuity Do Not Predict Drivers' Recognition Performance Under Day or Night Conditions. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(8), pp. 698-705.
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  • Higgins, Kent & (2005) Predicting Components of Closed Road Driving Performance From Vision Tests. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(8), pp. 647-656.
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  • (2005) How Does Vision Drive Driving Performance? Optometry and Vision Science, 82(8), pp. 639-640.
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  • Anstey, Kaarin, , Lord, Stephen, & Walker, Janine (2005) Cognitive, Sensory and Physical Factors Enabling Driving Safety in Older Adults. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(1), pp. 45-65.
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  • , , , , & (2005) Quantitative Assessment of Driving Performance in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 76(2), pp. 176-180.
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  • , Chaparro, Alex, & (2004) Effects of Age and Auditory and Visual Dual-tasks on Closed-road Driving Performance. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 48th Annual Meeting. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, http://www.hfes.org/Publications/ProductSubcategoryList.aspx?CategoryID=32, pp. 2319-2324.
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  • , , & (2004) Eye Disease and Driving Performance: Correlates Between Insight and Capability in Drivers with Glaucoma. In Doak, John (Ed.) 2004 Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference. Office of Road Safety, Perth, WA, pp. 1-9.
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  • & (2004) Older Drivers and Cataracts: Measures of Driving Performance Before and After Cataract Surgery. Transportation Research Record, 1865, pp. 7-13.
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  • , , & (2003) Driving and visual performance in an elderly population with glaucoma. In Maximising the Impact on Policy and Practice. Proceedings of ERA 2003, 2003-01-01.
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  • , , Dain, Stephen, & (2003) Traffic Signal Color Recognition is a Problem for Both Protan and Deutan Color-Vision Deficients. Human Factors, 45(3), pp. 495-503.
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  • , , , , & (2003) Pupil Dilatation does Affect Some Aspects of Daytime Driving Performance. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 87(11), pp. 1387-1390.
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  • (2002) Age and Visual Impairment Decrease Driving Performance as Measured on a Closed-Road Circuit. Human Factors, 44(3), pp. 482-494.
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  • (2002) Aging, Driving and Vision. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 85(4), pp. 214-220.
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  • (2002) Visual Impairment, aging and driving ability. CE Optometry, 5(2), pp. 45-48.
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  • Nemoto, Hideaki, Yanagishima, Takayuki, Taguchi, Mitsuru, & (2002) Driving workload comparison between older and younger drivers using the steering entropy method. In SAE Technical Paper Series, 2002-01-2080, 2002-01-01.
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  • & (2001) Comparison of Driving Performance of Young and Old Drivers (With and Without Visual Impairment) Measured During In-Traffic Conditions. Optometry and Vision Science, pp. 343-349.
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  • (2001) The Impact of Visual Impairment on Driving Performance. Impact - Journal of the Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators, pp. 4-8.
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  • (2000) Vision Loss, Aging and Driving Performance. In Vision Rehabilitation, Assessment, Intervention and Outcomes. Swets & Zeitlinger, Netherlands, pp. 249-252.
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  • (2000) Vision and Driving: Is Good Vision Really Necessary? In The College of Optometrists Conference 2000, 2000-01-01.
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  • (1999) How Do Visual Status and Age Impact on Driving Performance as Measured on a Closed Circuit Driving Track? Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, pp. 34-40.
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  • Higgins, Kent & (1998) Predicting Closed Road Sign Recognition Performance From Vision Tests. In Vision Science and its Applications Vol 1 OSA Technical Digest Series. Optical Society of America,, Washington DC, USA, pp. 42-45.
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  • (1998) Effect of ageing and vision on measures of driving performance. In Vision in Vision in Vehicles VI, 1998-01-01.
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  • , , , , & (1998) The Effect of Monovision Contact Lens Wear on Driving Performance. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, pp. 100-103.
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  • Higgins, Kent, , & (1998) Vision and Driving: Selective Effect of Optical Blur on Different Driving Tasks. Human Factors, pp. 224-232.
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  • (1998) Vision research, driving and the elderly. Guest editorial. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 18(6), pp. 469-470.
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  • (1997) Vision and Driving. Optometry Today, pp. 29-32.
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  • Higgins, Kent, , & (1996) Closed Road Driving Performance: Effect of Degradation of Visual Acuity. In Visual Sciences and its Applications 1996 Technical Digest Series. Optical Society of America, Washington DC USA.
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  • & (1994) Effect of restriction of vision on driving performance. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 120(5), pp. 737-752.
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