There is an exponential increase in the rate of collection of data observations, from Internet of Things sensors, online platforms, and beyond. This increase in observational data is disrupting industries and economic sectors, by digitizing their processes and providing opportunities for process optimization and more automated operations. Alongside the benefits of this data are the challenges of trusting the data authenticity along the full data pipeline from the observation source through its storage, transfer, analysis and use for decision support. This is a critical challenge as untrustworthy observational data may lead to economic loss or social or environmental damage.
This project focuses on the issues of data and identity trust in IoT underpinned by blockchain. It investigates methods of trusting the identity of data producing entities and their continued coupling with their physical context, and of trusting the data authenticity from physical observations.
For identity trust, we have proposed a method called Certificate of Existence (CoE)  that anonymously verifies the authenticity of a node type without revealing its identity. This method was validated within a peer-to-peer energy trading scenario, though its applicability is broad to any sensing application. CoE is proposed to protect the privacy of the consumer. There is no link between the verifier and the smart meter that is using the CoE as the verifier is selected randomly by the smart meter. Each meter may sign multiple CoEs for other smart meters. Consequently, tracking CoEs signed by particular meters will not com- promise the privacy.
For data trust, we have created a layered architecture  for improving the end-to-end trust that can be applied to a diverse range of blockchain-based IoT applica- tions. Our architecture evaluates the trustworthiness of sensor observations at the data layer and adapts block verification at the blockchain layer through the proposed data trust and gateway reputation modules.
Queensland University of Technology
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Prof. Raja Jurdak
Dr. Sara Khalifa (CSIRO)
Dr. Volkan Dedeoglu (CSIRO)
Dr. Ali Dorri
Dr. Shantanu Pal
Dr. Philip Valencia (CSIRO)
Prof. Salil Kanhere (UNSW)
Guntur Dharma Putra (UNSW)
Sidra Malik (UNSW)
Related Publications S. Malik, V. Dedeoglu, S. Kanhere and R. Jurdak, “Trusting Blockchain Data in Supply Chains,” To appear in proceedings of the 7th ACM Celebration of Women in Computing: womENcourage 2020 conference, Baku, Azerbaijan, September, 2020.  A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak. Blockchain for Cyberphysical Systems: Challenges, Opportunities, and Applications, ISBN: 978-1630817831, 2020. (in press)  G. D. Putra, V. Dedeoglu, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, “Trust Management in Decentralized IoT Access Control System,” In proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency, Toronto, Canada, May, 2020.  G. D. Putra, V. Dedeoglu, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, “Poster Abstract: Towards Scalable and Trustworthy Decentralized Collaborative Intrusion Detection System for IoT,” To appear in proceedings of the International Conference on IoT Design and Implementation, Sydney, Australia, April, 2020.  V. Dedeoglu, A. Dorri, R. Jurdak, R. Michelin, S. Kanhere, “A journey in applying blockchain for cyberphysical systems,” In proceedings of 12th International Conference on COMmunication Systems & NETworkS (COMSNETS), Bangalore, India, January, 2020.  A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, P. Gauravaram, LSB: A Lightweight Scalable BlockChain for IoT Security and Anonymity, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 134: 180-197, December, 2019.  V. Dedeoglu, R. Jurdak, G. D. Putra, A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, “A Trust Architecture for Blockchain in IoT,” In proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services (Mobiquitous), Houston, USA, November, 2019.  A. Dorri, F. Luo, S. S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, Z. Y. Dong, SPB: A Secure Private Blockchain-based Solution for Distributed Energy Trading, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 120-126, July 2019. doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2019.1800577  S. Malik, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, V. Dedeoglu, “TrustChain: Trust Management in Blockchain and IoT supported Supply Chains,” In proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (IEEE Blockchain 2019), Atlanta, USA, July, 2019.  A. Dorri, A. Hill, S.S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, F. Luo, Z. Y. Dong, “Peer-to-Peer EnergyTrade: A Distributed Private Energy Trading Platform”, In proceedings IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency, Seoul, Korea, May, 2019.  A. Dorri, M. Steger, S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, “BlockChain: A Distributed Solution to Automotive Security and Privacy”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 55, Issue 12, pages 119-125, December, 2017. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700879.  A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, “Towards an Optimized BlockChain for IoT,” In proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI 2017), as part of CPSWeek, Pittsburgh, USA, April, 2017.
pdf  A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak., and P. Gauravaram, “Blockchain for IoT Security and Privacy: The Case Study of a Smart Home,” In proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on security, privacy, and trust in the Internet of things (PERCOM), Hawaii, USA, March, 2017.