Palladium forms Ohmic contact on hydrogen-terminated diamond down to 4 K
Kaijian Xing, Alexander Tsai, Sergey Rubanov, Daniel L. Creedon, Steve A. Yianni, Lei Zhang, Wei-Chang Hao, Jincheng Zhuang, Jeffrey C. McCallum, Christopher I. Pakes, and Dong-Chen Qi
A hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-terminated diamond) surface supports a two-dimensional (2D) p-type surface conductivity when exposed to the atmosphere, as a result of the surface transfer doping process. The formation of reliable Ohmic contacts that persist to cryogenic temperature is essential for the exploration of quantum transport in the diamond 2D conducting channel. Herein, the contact properties of Pd on H-terminated diamond have been fully investigated down to 4 K using transmission line method measurements. Pd is shown to form an Ohmic contact on H-terminated diamond with linear I–V characteristics and low specific contact resistance in the range of (8.4 ± 1) ×10−4 Ω·cm2 to (1.3 ± 0.2) ×10−3 Ω·cm2 for the temperature range of 300 K–4 K. This is in stark contrast to reference devices with Au/Pt/Ti contacts, which exhibit a significant temperature dependence and non-Ohmic behavior at low temperature. Using 2D thermionic emission theory, a negative Schottky barrier height (SBH), 23 ± 1 meV, between Pd and H-terminated diamond has been determined, in comparison to a positive SBH of 42 ± 1 meV for the Au/Pt/Ti/H-terminated diamond interface. These results show that Pd serves as an excellent candidate for forming reliable Ohmic contacts on H-terminated diamond for enabling precise electrical transport measurements at cryogenic temperature.