This project aims to develop a generic, scalable and systematic process to evaluate the operational viability of decentralised and/or regional-scale renewable energy (RE) hybrid systems to generate (green) hydrogen (H2) for export. The project strategy is to build a benchmarking capacity using existing, readily available RE components to provide validated data for enterprise-scale economic modelling of performance as well as to provide a platform to test, at small pilot scale, the performance of new technologies developed through this project. The project will develop technologies in hydrogen production via electrolysis, in energy storage and in gas sensing. These technologies, when developed, will be integrated with the test-platform to benchmark against existing commercial standards.
The primary focus of attention since commencement has been the design, construction, procurement, tendering and delivery of a ~50kW hybrid RE pilot plant that has integral energy storage, hydrogen production and hydrogen use via an appropriate micro-grid/control system. The intent has been to use predominantly off-the-shelf equipment to enable benchmarking of component and system performance with this pilot plant. Modelling and design have been key elements of desktop work, not only for the proposed pilot plant but also to translate attributes and lessons from pilot plant discussions to a broader generic integration of components into viable system solutions.
Laboratory work has focused on improved understanding of battery components and battery performance (predominantly lithium-based batteries) and development of novel electrodes for improved alkaline electrolysis performance. Lithium-based battery cathode activities have used our benchmark lithium-iron-phosphate materials to assess optimum compositions (and source materials) for nickel-manganese-cobalt formats with good success. Other key compositions for potassium-based battery formats have also been defined and corrected in the literature. In addition, gap analysis and bench-scale work has focused on identifying optimal performance of sensors for low-temperature sensing of hydrogen gas in the presence of other gaseous components. This analysis has led to new experimental approaches to synthesise hybrid 2D materials to improve sensitivity and selectivity.
Funding / Grants
- Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA), Sumitomo Electric Industries, Energy Developments Ltd., CS Energy, Universities and Other In-Kind; Total: $9.2 million. (2018 - 2022)
Other Team Members
- Griffith University
- The University of Tokyo
- Swinburne University of Technology
- Sumitomo Electric
- CS Energy
- Queensland Government
- Hashtroudi, Hanie, Atkin, Paul, Mackinnon, Ian, Shafiei, Mahnaz (2019) Low-operating temperature resistive nanostructured hydrogen sensors International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44 (48), pp.26646-26664.
- Sayeed, Md Abu, Heron, Jonathan, Love, Jonathan, O'Mullane, Anthony (2020) Activating Iron Based Materials for Overall Electrochemical Water Splitting via the Incorporation of Noble Metals Chemistry - An Asian Journal, 15 (24), pp.4339-4346.
- Hydrogen gas sensing properties of microwave-assisted 2D Hybrid Pd/rGO: Effect of temperature, humidity and UV illumination.
- Hashtroudi, Hanie, MacKinnon, Ian D.R., Shafiei, Mahnaz (2020) Emerging 2D hybrid nanomaterials: towards enhanced sensitive and selective conductometric gas sensors at room temperature Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 8 (38), pp.13108-13126.
- Sayeed, Md Abu, Woods, Charlotte, Love, Jonathan, O'Mullane, Anthony (2020) Electrochemical Synthesis of a Multipurpose Pt−Ni Catalyst for Renewable Energy‐Related Electrocatalytic Reactions ChemElectroChem, 7 (21), pp.4369-4377.
- Jenkins, Tristram, Alarco, Jose A., MacKinnon, Ian D.R. (2021) Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Hydrated Layered Vanadium(III) Phosphate Phase K3V3(PO4)4·H2O:A Functional Cathode Material for Potassium-Ion Batteries ACS Omega, 6 (3), pp.1917-1929.
- Zhang, Y., Alarco, J. A., Khosravi, M., MacKinnon, I. D.R. (2021) Nanoscale differentiation of surfaces and cores for olivine phosphate particles-A key characteristic of practical battery materials JPhys Energy, 3 (3), pp.Article number: 032004.
- Capacitive humidity sensing performance of naphthalene diimide derivatives at ambient temperature.
- Hybrid two-dimensional nanostructured hydrogen gas sensors.
- P. Atkin, H. Hashtroudi, I.D.R. Mackinnon and M. Shafiei (2019) Nanotechnology enabled hydrogen gas sensing. P. Atkin, H. Hashtroudi, I.D.R. Mackinnon and M. Shafiei, “Nanotechnology enabled hydrogen gas sensing,” Proc. Int. Conf. on Hydrogen Safety, Adelaide, Australia, September (2019) 1-10.
- Asghari Gorji, Saman, Sahebi, Hosein G., Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein (2020) Fourth-Order Minimum-Phase Boost Converters Using Reverse-Coupled Inductors Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE Electric Power and Energy Conference (EPEC), 2020 IEEE Electric Power and Energy Conference, EPEC 2020, pp.1-8.